+ Articles on Research Question Development

A thorough approach to preparing a research question

The formulation of a research question is essential before any investigation into a subject.

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Evaluation of your research topic and how to answer critical questions

Evaluation of a research topic through answering open ended questions and evidence.

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Overview of the research process

An overview of the research process that includes step by step components to reach the goal of a completed research approach.

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Evidence-based intervention (EBI) mapping

A systematic approach to understanding the components and logic of EBIs.

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How to refine your selected research topic

When refining research questions, it is important to ensure that topics are not too narrow and include thorough analysis of resources.

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Asking the right question: specifying your study question

Well defined research questions guide the study design and how the data from the population will be collected.

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Avoiding pitfalls when specifying the “why”

Why clinical trial outcomes fail to translate into benefits for patients.

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Standardized outcome sets

Relevant resources that can be applied to methodological research and core outcome sets.

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Evaluating project outcomes for specific disease prevalence in a population.

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Qualitative data collection and analysis to conduct rigorous research

Rigor and quality of a research can be indicators for best practices to conduct, carry out, and designing a proper research study.

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Various frameworks and models to help formulate a valid research question

Various models and frameworks such as PICO, SPICE, and SPIDER can be used to formulate a valid research question.

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Defining your research question through PICO and PS

Using PICO and PS as a fundamental step in creating a proper research question.

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How CLIP became ECLIPSE: assisting with health policy management information

The framework CLIP was used in health policy management, and adjustments to the model allowed improvement of areas in “impact” and “expectation” for health management.

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An introduction of the PICOT: a framework for clinical research

Clinicians have used PICOT to improve intervention for treatments and patient care outcomes.

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The SPIDER framework for evidence synthesis

A systematic strategy for searching for mixed method research studies.

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Formulating a research question through pitfalls and successes

Discussing important considerations when formulating research, to appreciate the value of a strong hypothesis and study objectives.

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+ Glossary

Applied science

In the context of this module, it is used to represent a branch of basic science research aimed to convert existing scientific knowledge to practical application.


Acronym for *Economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes*; a way to denote the different types of study outcomes in medical research.


Acronym for *Expectation, Client group, Location, Impact, Professionals, Service*; framework for creating research questions, commonly within policy/service evaluation.


Any factor that may be associated with an outcome of interest.

External validity

How applicable the results of a study are to the real world.


Acronym for *Feasible, Interesting, Novel, Ethical, and Relevant*; criteria for evaluating research questions.


The specific methodology or scientific strategy within a study.


Any action which is taken upon a subject to generate an outcome of interest.

Internal validity

The degree of confidence that the relationship you are testing is not influenced by other variables.


Acronym for institutional review board; a group formally designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects.


Illness or disease, often expressed as a proportion, rate, or prevalence.


Acronym for *Patient/population/problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Timing/type of question, Setting/study design*; framework for creating research questions, commonly within quantitative patient-oriented research.


The source where groups of subjects are identified.


Acronym for *Setting, Perspective, Intervention/interest/exposure, Comparison, Evaluation*; framework for creating research questions, commonly within project/service evaluation.


Acronym for *Sample, Phenomenon of interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type*; framework for creating research questions, commonly within qualitative and mixed-methods research.


Any entity on which research evaluation is being measured upon.

T0 to T4

A classification system for research on the translational science spectrum, including T0 (basic research), T1 (translation to humans), T2 (translation to patients), T3 (translation to practice), and T4 (translation to communities).

Theoretical science

In the context of this module, it is used to represent a branch of basic science research aimed to gather knowledge about a phenomenon.


The subject of interest within a study; examples include patients, animals, or cells, a set of compounds, or a dataset or algorithm.


The action of interest within a study; examples include an intervention, an exposure of interest, or simply a phenomenon or mechanism.


The outcome of interest within a study; examples include prevention of stroke or the development of dementia, the accuracy of a diagnostic test, or the identification of a specific genetic mutation.